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Guarantees the freedom of religion, speech, and the press; protects the right of assembly and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Protects the right to keep and bear arms.
Guards against the forced quartering of troops in any house, without the consent of the Owner.
Protects the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures.
Guarantees a trial by jury and "due process of law", and guards against double jeopardy (being charged twice for the same offense) and self-incrimination, and protects against seizure of private property for public use without just compensation.
Outlines the rights of the accused, including the right to have a "speedy and public" trial; the right to be informed of the charges made against you; the right to call witnesses in your defense; and the right to have an attorney in your defense.
Lays out the rules of common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States.
Protects against "cruel and unusual punishments", such as excessive bail, excessive fines imposed, or cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Ensures that the individual rights that are not enumerated in the Constitution are secure -- that is, that these rights should not be automatically infringed upon because they are omitted from the Constitution.
Limits the power of the Federal Government by reserving for the States all powers that are not explicitly granted to the Federal Government by the Constitution, nor denied to the States.